Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array (or list) one item at a time. However, insertion sort provides several advantages: Simple implementation: Jon Bentley shows a three-line c version, and a five-line optimized version Efficient for (quite) small data sets, much like other quadratic sorting algorithmsAdaptive, i.e., efficient for data sets that are already substantially sorted: the time complexity is O(kn) when each component in the input is no more than K places away from its sorted position Stable; i.e., makes not change the relative order of components with equal keys

To perform an insertion sort, begin at the left-most component of the array and invoke insert to insert each component encountered into its correct position. It operates by beginning at the end of the sequence and shifting each component one place to the right until a suitable position is found for the new component.

```
%A MATLAB/Octave implementation of the insertion sort algorithm.
%The basic premise is that the program checks whether two neighbouring elements
%in an array are in order and sorts them. It does length(array) number of
% passes. For further details and pseudocode, refer to
%https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insertion_sort
%Note that this function differs slightly from the pseudocode because of
%how MATLAB/Octave arrays start at index 1.
%Note: this function is for educational purposes only.
%You will want to use the built-in sort function for actual coding,
%as it is much more efficent.
function y = insertion_sort(array)
i = 1;
%Assigning the length to a variable should make the program slightly faster.
len = length(array);
while i < len + 1
j = i;
while j > 1 && array(j - 1) > array(j)
%Swapping array(j - 1) and array(j)
temp = array(j - 1);
array(j - 1) = array(j);
array(j) = temp;
j = j - 1;
endwhile
i = i + 1;
endwhile
y = array;
endfunction
```